Here you see some of the most commen of the colors.
I have to mention as well that not all those colors and patterns are allowed at the FCI countries.

I found some great sites who have made researches come onto being colors and about breeding with special colors and patterns.  

Dachshund Colors & Patterns an original script by Sandra J. Russell 

Canine Color Genetics by Sue Ann Bowling 

Double Dapples by DROG August 2000